Rabu, 26 Desember 2007

eidos and energeia

Eidos and Energeia

The hallmark of Aristotle as a philosopher is a robust common sense, which refused to believe that this world was anything but fully real. Philosophy, as it appeared to him,was an attempt to explain the natural world. And if it could not do so, or could explain it only by the introduction of a mysterious, transcendental pattern-world, devoid of the characteristically natural property of motion, then it must be consideren have to fail. His comment on the Platonic Ideas is typical :But to call them patterns, or speak of the other things as sharing in them,is to talk in empty words and poetic metaphors.

Aristotle was more builder than a visionary. He looked for solid foundations in the physical and social order and developed logic to guide his scientific elaboration. To put strength in the resulting intellectual structure, he fixed each part in its place with firm bends of principle and cause (Ancient Western Philosophy. The Hellenic Emergence Geoerge F. Mc Mclean and PAtric J. Aspell)

Ethic issues perhaps emerged in human being action as well as such action have a significant impact to other people. And not forgetting ethic also have a significant effect to himself ; destination. We may create and change our destination by change our character and we able to change our character by change our habit and we can change a habit by change actions. And action should be achieve by ethic .

We know that problem ethic is hardly determines in human life even can be told that chance, destiny and our destiny also depend on ethics. The ethics present in deed or action. When the action repeatedly hence it got into the habit and the habit if always is done hence will change into the very crystal clear character and character determines fate of our life.

In This Case Aristotle is man who is believing the importance of problem ethic, Therefore very fair if he compiles him'self book about ethic and even he assumes that ethic must be locked out of philosophy theory. In consequence he is not in agreement with Plato and Socrates claiming that someone is going to be good man, should know about metaphysic, and others.

Even if he is taking inspiration from the predecessors, but he clearly has separate specification. He also studying ethic systematically and launch issues which is interesting like friendship, kindness, freedom, virtue, harmonious behavior, badness and et cetera.

Aristotle believed that if the man had function and he can implement its function is carefully, hence actually he has done kindness.

He writes two treatise a real valuable that is Nicomachean Ethic and Eudemian Ethic. He actually doesn't give title or lable to both its masterpieces

According To Aristotle he actually not looking for just kindness but he searching is best ( the highest good).

Therefore, there are big relation between destination (Takdir) and Ethic. At this point why Aristotle is such a great philosopher in history. He also known by First teacher (mualiam awwal), since he author logic teaching and a Great philosopher such Avicena read his treatise fourty times and make comment, inherit and follower Aristotelian Philosophy

Like ethic is for individual and politic is ethic but for government

Goodness invidual and more important is goodness from society

And at this point he extend his ethic philosopichal to politic views.

In wel-manner Aristotle always take inspirations from his daily live since he believe

His theory of Ethic is very unique and mostly profound and impact have big influences

Aristole on Virtue

Aristotle believe the moral virtues are states of character lying at the mean between extremes of excess and deficiency. Moral virtues, for Aristotle, are to be distinguished form intellectual virtues. Moral virtues has to do with feeling, choosing, and acting well. Intellectual virtues in identified as a kind of wisdom acquired by teaching.Aristotle views that that virtues lie at the mean between two extrees, sometimes called the doctrin of mean,’.

Virtue is as state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean relative to ourselves, determined by a rational principle and in the way in which the man of practical wisdom would determine it.

Aristotle ethic have been influenced many of thinker from ancient to modern times. I found in

But however, in general to it is very difficult to investigate to examine all of his ethic principal

Since Aristotle have and talk relating his ethic with soul,pricip of function of human being, character of ethic and value thing to do god things and his inspiring idea to get accustomed with good actions, to practice good manners, ability to choice a best right actions, teleology as he said that if we aware that one of function of human being is one of certain of live

Eudaimonia

His ideas notion about Eudaimonia, mostly everything anything have been be wished to obtained as to other things , like eating for healthy, drug for healty and this healthy assumed as be seen as happiness and for ordinary people since they can not aware of his purpose – be interpreted as anything for everything – wealthy, pleasure, richness, owing a big mansion, owing a tent of luxury of houses, being a millionaire, and all 0f amazing dream which playing in mind – believed as happiness at all. Aristotle did to menyadarkan kita bahwa since all of dreams regarded as happiness itself however they forget to happiness it self. They thing they my be happiners people if having a luxuty houses,

Ethic in Searching God

And I like to quoted from a book al-Milal wa Nihal (Arabic text in original Arabic text) author was Syahrestani . As stated by Germany Thinker Habergcar (?) by mediating Syahrestani, this Book attempt to make bridge between modern and ancient philosophy (Prefare for milal wa nilah page : 12)

Syahrestani said :

Aristole claimed that a soul ( soul of humanity) will developed to be perfect if two side be perfect as in practice and knowledge and than he will equivalent with God and he will obtained a Divine perfect-ness.

Vice in Aristole View

Evil (Bad) according to Aristotle has three form, namely disobey (kemaksiatan), loosing capable to driving desires (tidak mampu mengendalikan diri) and aggressiveness (kebrutalan).

Therefore Aristotle believe that practical wisdom must also acquire through practice.

The basic idea of what if which Aristotle begin is about issue what is suitable or best for human beings? He insist that ethic is no a theoritical discipline, we are asking what the good for human being is not simply because we want to have knowledge but but because we will be bette able to achieve pur Good if we develop a fuller understanding of what it it to flourish.

For Aristotle what is good is easy question but wether certain of these good are more desirable than others, It was a problem

A Critic for Aristole

Sant Hilary said Aristotle so believer in reality (empiricist science) therefore he not concern to the side of it rationality of Plato.

Three Lives Compared

Aristotle says that three kinds of lives are thought to be especially attractive: one is devoted to pleasure, a second to politics, and a third to knowledge and understanding.

The life of pleasure is a life devoted to physical pleasure, and is quickly dismissed because of its vulgarity.

Aristotle concedes that physical pleasures, and more generally, amusements of all sorts, are desirable in themselves, and therefore have some claim to be our ultimate end. But he have a thesis that pleasure cannot be our ultimate target, because what counts as pleasant must be judged by some standard other than pleasure itself, namely the judgment of the virtuous person. Amusements will not be absent from a happy life, since everyone needs relaxation, and amusements fill this need. But they play a subordinate role, because we seek relaxation in order to return to more important activities.

Aristotle turns therefore, to the two remaining alternatives—politics and philosophy—and presents a series of arguments to show that the philosophical life, a life devoted to theoria (contemplation, study), is best. Theoria is not the process of learning that leads to understanding; that process is not a candidate for our ultimate end, because it is undertaken for the sake of a further goal. What Aristotle has in mind when he talks about theoria is the activity of someone who has already achieved theoretical wisdom. The happiest life is lived by someone who has a full understanding of the basic causal principles that govern the operation of the universe, and who has the resources needed for living a life devoted to the exercise of that understanding.

In fact, Aristotle believes that his own life and that of his philosophical friends was the best available to a human being. He compares it to the life of a god: god thinks without interruption and endlessly, and a philosopher enjoys something similar for a limited period of time.

In the End

Although Aristotle argues for the superiority of the philosophical life, he says in the final chapter of the Ethics, that his project is not yet complete, because we can make human beings virtuous, or good even to some small degree, only if we undertake a study of the art of legislation. The final section of the Ethics is therefore intended as an prolegomenon to Aristotle's political writings. We must investigate the kinds of political systems exhibited by existing Greek cities, the forces that destroy or preserve cities, and the best sort of political order. Although the study of virtue Aristotle has just completed is meant to be helpful to all human beings who have been brought up well—even those who have no intention of pursuing a political career—it is also designed to serve a larger purpose. Human beings cannot achieve happiness, or even something that approximates happiness, unless they live in communities that foster good habits and provide the basic equipment of a well-lived life.

The study of the human good has therefore led to two conclusions: The best life is not to be found in the practice of politics. But the well being of whole communities depends on the willingness of some to lead a second-best life—a life devoted to the study and practice of the art of politics, and to the expression of those qualities of thought and passion that exhibit our rational self-mastery.

Concise Of Ethic Aristole

  • Teleological in nature: conducive to human good.
  • The end of life is happiness (eudaimonia). It consists in activity according to virtue or in virtuous activity, understanding by virtue both the intellectual and the moral virtues.
  • We become virtuous by doing virtuous acts.

  • Virtue is a mean between two extremes: Cowardice – Courage – Foolhardiness.
  • The virtuous person is the one who possesses practical wisdom, the ability to see what is the right thing to do in the circumstances.

Reference:

  1. Falsafe ye Akhlak (Philosophy of Ethic by Misbah Yazdi ) a Book translated in to Indonesian Language from persian by Ammar Fauzi MA.
  2. Ancient Western Philosophy the Hellenic Emergence, George F. Mc Lean, Patric J, Aspell, The Councile For research In values & Philosophy
  3. The Greek Philosopher From Thales to Aristotle. W. K Guthrie
  4. Etika Filsafat Islam Dr Ahmad Mahmud Subhi
  5. Filsafat Umum dari Akal dan Hati, sejak Thales hingga Capra Prof. DR. Ahmad Tafsir. Rosda Karya Bandung
  6. Psikologi Komunikasi. Dr. Jalaluddin Rakhmat. Penerbit Rosda Karya Bandung
  7. Al-Milal wa an-Nihal Syahrestani. (a Classic book of Islamic School in Theology)
  8. Etika Komunikasi. Texbook di Fakultas Komunikasi Unpad Bandung

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