Take Home Test Final Examination
Philosophy of Religion
By Nano Warno
1. a) Is philosophy of Religion possible? (Considering that philosophy is rational whereas religion is identical with faith)
Yes, it possible, because not all elements of the religious is faith is or must be accepted by faith. According to Islamic religion the people should accepted the fundamental islamic doctrine by ratio before by faith. Even according to Farabi perfection of the soul is not only dependent on worship rituals, but also depend on intellectual actifity (tafakkur).
Philosophy also increase faith said because as said by Rudolf Otto, one of the aspects of the gods, as the central religious is misterium tremendum and God also has aspects fascinosum aspects to attract love and to achieved only by ratio.
Philosophy also brings us discuss issues that go in the metaphysics realm, imaginal world, and spiritual world where religious faith will operate.
b) Give an example as an illustration for your answer above
Illustration of philosophy of religion is as follows : 1) it is part of criterion of objectivity and the value of what is believed, it is all a question about faith. And maintained to keep a subjectivity of believer in critical state. He also gift from God, because he does not always satisfied and continue to ask. But he also has limits because it only depend on the empirical data that observable because is like the vehicle. philosophy is for the human aspect at same time religious is has divinity aspect. Since religion if form God it must pass through faith, but when go to the region's human a philosophy should also be involved because it has become the language of human and therefore to human then it must also respect and follow the standards and the way people think.
2) Ratio is like mirror in order to get clear reflection there must should put in such way or in appropriate way (faith). So it can reflect the truth itself : a) mirror should put in front of object b) mirror should be in purification c) between mirror and object should no stand any obstacle d) and mirror should no be broken.
3) Philosophy from reason and religion comes from revelation,
But to understand the revelation is required ratio, since revelation more appreciate to ratio and if revelation must be understood by revelation itself it will fall again in the unfinished regress circle.
1. a) Can ratio and faith be met? If it is possible, how can it be? (if necessary, you can refer to mysticism and concept of aql in your answer. Please explain where your position is?
Faith is kind of attitude of truth so it have indication of existence of will, re-understanding and commitment and feeling and feeling not coming instantly, automatically it presuppose a concept and will and concept it relate to cognitions.
Reason is significant of human being
so if God can let to guide all of human being by his Power but God let them in order to respect his freedom, choose make an all of human being obey his command but he choose to send text and to send prophets.
Reason and faith can be met as Evan said, ‘A faith with evades question is a faith that lack of confidence, which is not truly assured it has found truth.’
And if God want us to freely choose to love and obey him, then God couldn’t make it irrational to be a theist. Hence the theistic ‘proofs could be seen as one aspect by which we choose freely by means of our rational faculties
Our ability to reason can be seen as a gift from God. Therefore it would be seem right to use this ability when faced with a variety of conflicting religious claim
Anselm said in his treatise titled "Proslogion" the sentence that sounds interesting: I believe to be understand. If we reverse this sentence will be: if I do not believe, then I can not know.
My position is ratio and faith each of them can complement each other
my position, that we can not accept the faith as a one-way, for the faith of truth must be verified with the ratio, if faith without verification will cause a conflict.
Intellect role is to bring human to a certain point. Akal (intellect) with is limitedness also needed for rational discourse, but for phenomenon that are difficult to accepted by the intellect we need another approach to the faith. Since there are a different region therefore need different approach.
b) Can science and religion be met? Please explain the relation between them.
Yes , when dialog can took place between them. Relation between science and religion have been illustrated as :
1. conflict when science threat religion and vice versa
2. Independence, when science and religion as different realm.
3. Dialogue, when science and religion may talk each other about one issues
4. Integration, when science and religion may unify in one discourse
3. Explain in brief about the concept of God and God’s Relation to the nature
God is in fact the Zat can not be known it’s essential, but it can be known through the names and his theopany. God is everywhere, signs of God in alam (the nature), because it called : alam is ma yu’lamu bihi, something that can be identified or sign (alamat). Alam is teophany of God, we also may said alam is god and God is alam but it also must be viewed from the aspect tanzih and tasybih. the same point the god is the nature but also with God different from nature.
4. Explain about the religious experience covering with religious language which is related and included it. Does morality need religion?
Religious experience is the experience mostly mode different form any other type of experience and usually induces in the person concerned a conviction that the every world is not the whole of reality, there is another dimension to life is not usual to be describe. There are many types of religious experience : mysticism, conversion, prayer and so on.
With respect to the problem of religious language, multiple solutions have been suggested and defended. Traditionally. There have been three main approaches to these issues. : a) equivocal language, means that the same word is used with totally different meaning b) univocal that is the word of God must have same meaning with or be as clear as the words that used about the universe c) analogical, is compromise between the two positions .God is no a being like other being but we can reason about him.
By accepting that knowledge based on experience so the knowledge also can be based on language. And A criterion of meaning can be established and and to determine which words can be judged either meaningful or meaningless is referred to criteria of meaning and here may is offered by Islamic thinker such Mehdi Hairi that believe such knowledge by presence can be solution for problem the language of religion experience and by knowledge by presence (ilmu huduri) is speak about reality itself; its kind of existential (being), in this level and Mehdi hairi which distinguish between metalanguage and object language said that we have a ineffable mysticism with more different than introspective mysticism (ilmu husuli), it mean by ineffable mysticism is state of personal in term of existentialism. knowing by full of awareness and a object of mysticism like irfan is included in introspective mysticism non mystical experience itself.
yes, the moral need for religion, not all of kind of moral can be identified by human experience or ratio as a moral good and bad. religion provides additional clarification on matters of good and bad in more detail. Affirmation of moral need of religion because religious beliefs coming from more closely with the emotional followers.