Minggu, 25 Januari 2009

kuhn take home test-2

Systematic account of the process and structure of scientific revolution Kuhn
1) Paradigm in philosophy is view of life, mode,pattern or assumption in theory of knowledge .or a totality of premises,theorities and methodologis which determine and define kind of study and also paradigm is ground for solving problem

2) Normal science paradigm
The stage is, there is no dispute about the fundamental issues between the sceintis so that a single paradigm is accepted by all. And it is this characteristic that distinguishes between normal science and pre-science. Single paradigm that has been received is protected from criticism and that he falsifikasi resistance from many critics and falsifikasi.
Paradigms that guide scientific research experiments or deny the existence of a strict definition, although , the paradigm is covered:
Some typical components that will explicitly propose laws and theoretical assumptions. With so the law "movement" Newton formed part of the Newtonian paradigm. And "equality" Maxwell is a part of the paradigm that has formed the theory of classical elektromagnetik.
Some of the raw materials in the use of fundamental laws for different types of situations.
Some of the instrumentation and techniques, the technique required to make the laws of the paradigm that can survive in the real world and in the paradigm itself.
Some principles metafisis a very general guide the work in a paradigm.
many information metodologis a very public way that provides breakthrough science puzzles.
Normal science involves detailed and organized effort to define the paradigm with the goal of improving the natural (phenomenon) to solve puzzles science, both theoretical puzzles and puzzles experimental. Theoretical puzzles (in the Newtonian paradigm) covers mathematics planning techniques to handle the movement of a planet depends on several tensile strength and develop the assumption that according to the Newton law application of liquid. Experimental puzzles include the improvement of the accuracy of observation and experiment so that the technique is able to produce measurements that can be trusted.
In this stage there are three focus for the normal factual science research, namely:
a) Determining the facts is important.
b) Adjust the facts with the theory. Efforts to adjust the theory of this fact more evident in the ketergantungannya paradigm. The existence of the paradigm is set and to design issues that must be solved; paradigm that is often implicit directly involved in the design of equipment that is capable of solving the problem.
c) to articulate theory paradigm with ambiguitasnya solve some remaining problems and possible solutions that were previously only attract only.
Perhaps the most prominent characteristic of the normal problems of research in this stage is how at least of the problems it is intended to produce new inventions, the invention of the great conceptual or a great but; normal science target is to solve puzzles and science issues . Puzzle must be marked by a certainty there will be solutions of the paradigm. If scientis failed to solve the puzzle is the failure of science is a failure of science itself is not the failure of the paradigm. Puzzles that are not seen as solvable terpecahkan deviation (anomaly) falsifikasi not as a paradigm.
. Conversely, if a number of anomalies, or facts that can not be answered by the paradigm appear continuously and attack the fundamental paradigm, then this will bring a crisis.

3. Crisis Revolution
Although the target is normal to solve puzzles and science produce non-discovery of new findings that conceptually, the symptoms of new and unexpected repeatedly shown by scientific and detected is followed by the emergence of new theories.
When new things are revealed that can not be explained by the paradigm and the difference between theory and fact cause a serious problem, and anomaly-anomaly are the fundamental paradigm in the way, trust in the paradigm that shaky start and then there were a crisis situation culminate in a paradigm change (revolution).
Anomaly is seen as a serious matter that can shake the paradigm if these anomalies:
a) attact things that most fundamental of a paradigm, and the persistent efforts of the normal science to it.
b) Having importance in relation to some of the urgent needs of the community.
The crisis can be assumed as pre-conditions necessary and important for the emerging new theories. At this stage of the normal science and philosophical disputes occur metafisis. They plead with the invention of new arguments from the philosophical position be seen from the point of paradigm. Although it is likely to lose their trust and then consider some alternatives, they do not leave the paradigm that has brought them into the crisis as such. Until the acceptance of a new paradigm that is different from the last paradigm.

There in is not first paradigm better than second paradigm it mean between 1 and 2 occur a divorce and will lead revolution.

an complet of image or concept of alternative science in Kuhn outline which drawwed in many stages :
Preparadigm - Prescience- Paradigm-ormal science -Crisis anomaly-Revolution-New of paradigm-Extra ordinary of science –Anomaly-Crisis- Revolution

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